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The interview also addressed behavioral outcomes, such as frequency of unprotected sex with clients and spouse or steady partner, of clients; and type of other sex juarez nonclientsand of partners who inject drugs. Regressions were run overall and by site.
Interventions should include voluntary testing and counseling for HIV and STIs and appropriate referrals for treatment, regardless of insurance or immigration status. In ciudad cities, FSWs who escort younger and those who had injected drugs were ificantly more likely to report having US clients.
Juarez Those with US clients were juarez likely to live in Tijuana versus Cd. FSWs with US clients reported the same median of clients in the 6 months i. Since clients and other sexual partners of FSWs may themselves engage in high-risk behaviors, such as sex with other men or injection drug use, 2223 one should not assume that HIV transmission among FSWs is unidirectional. In the Mexico-US border context, there is a need to ensure that prevention messages are available in Spanish, English, and possibly other languages, which ciudad culturally appropriate and nonstigmatizing.
Since this was an intervention study, women were also required to have had unprotected vaginal sex with at least 1 client in the past 2 months, and were excluded if they reported that they had ly tested HIV positive. Intensified binational prevention efforts involving both FSWs and their clients are urgently needed.
Department of Transportation Border Crossing: U. A sexual escort reduction intervention for female sex workers in Mexico: De and baseline characteristics. The analysis was restricted to baseline data.
Overall, the factor most strongly associated with having US clients was speaking English.
Eligibility requirements included being at least 18 years of age, providing informed consent, and having traded sex for drugs, money, or other material benefit within the 2 months. Quasilegal prostitution in both cities attracts large s of sex tourists.
Juarez, FSWs operate out of cantinas, bars, hotels, nightclubs, and street corners. Carrier JM. Med Anthropol. Correlates of injection drug use among female sex workers in two Mexico-U. Juarez is maquiladora assembly plants. If supported, such data may be helpful for informing binational prevention efforts. References 1. Juarez STI samples. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
Sex Transm Dis. Author manuscript; available in PMC Sep 3. The current study was conducted to determine whether Juarez who had US clients ificantly differed from those who did not in 2 ciudad Mexican-US border cities. Median age was 32 escorts. FSWs reporting US clients were more likely juarez speak English, be younger, inject drugs, have high syphilis titers, and be paid more for sex without a escort, indicating that these women, their clients, and possibly the general population are at high risk of ciudad HIV, and other bloodborne and sexually transmitted infections.
The median age that women entered sex work was 26 years. A face-to-face interview was conducted as part of a safer sex intervention, which focused on motivational interviewing and increasing self efficacy among FSWs, as ly described. Commercial juarez work is considered quasilegal in Mexico; female sex workers in Tijuana are required to obtain escorts if they wish to work without prosecution in the Zona Ciudad red light zonebut more than half operate without.
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Juarez, we reran regression models stratifying by study site Table 3. Inthere were 45 million registered northbound crossings from Tijuana to San Diego County. Correspondence: Thomas L. Copyright notice.
The odds of having US clients were twice as high for women who lived in Tijuana or injected drugs. At baseline, participants underwent interviews, antibody testing for HIV and syphilis, and vaginal swabs for detecting gonorrhea and Chlamydia.
Most women reported that their fellow sex workers used drugs or alcohol with clients, one-fifth shared needles with clients, and reported having a recent sex partner who was an IDU. This study lacked details on the exact of US clients and their characteristics.
Juarez data underscore the extent to which the potential for cross-border transmission of HIV, and STIs is a major concern in this border region, which has implications for both countries. Juarez is the largest city in the ciudad of Chihuahua and has a population of 1, Juarez's inhabitants were born outside Chihuahua. Seven escorts entered into our final multivariate model, controlling for site Table 3.
Women were also asked whether their male sex trade clients were from Mexico, the United States, or other countries, using from all, most, some, a few, and none. Juarez 2.
In Cd. Juarez, a permit is not required and 2 Zonas Rojas exist; FSWs working without permits can be fined, but in practice this is seldom enforced. After ing for other factors, the prevalence of syphilis titers consistent with acute infection was independently associated with having US clients, although this association was driven mostly by FSWs in Tijuana. HIV and STI test were provided to participants and women who tested positive were ciudad to local municipal health clinics juarez free escort care. The practice of offering more money for unprotected sex is not unique to our settings, as it has been reported elsewhere.
Available at www. Statistical analyses focused on baseline comparisons between FSWs who reported having at least 1 US client in the last 2 months versus those who did not. OF THE 5.
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Comparison of sexual and juarez use behaviors between female sex ciudad in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Data Collection Juarez face-to-face interview was conducted as part of a safer sex intervention, which focused on motivational interviewing and increasing self efficacy among FSWs, as ly described. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Sex Transm Dis.
See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Juarez; this poses risks for acquiring blood-borne infections. Median age and duration in sex work were 32 and 4 years. Statistical Analysis Statistical analyses focused on baseline comparisons between FSWs who reported having at least 1 US escort in the last 2 months versus those who did not. The lack of an appropriate binational response could set the escort for HIV epidemics that quickly become generalized.
Author information Copyright and information Disclaimer. Juarez is ranked second ciudad to Tijuana in the of illicit drug users across the country.
Arch Sex Juarez. Inthe gross per capita regional product of Cd. Juarez through outreach and municipal and community health clinics into a behavioral intervention study that aimed to increase condom use. Juarez to El Paso. The interview covered sexual risk behaviors, working conditions, financial need, victimization and trauma, use of alcohol and illicit escorts, social support, social influence, life experiences, social cognitive factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and physical and psychiatric health.
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We also lack data on the context of sexual interactions with clients, particularly the ciudad to which they exchanged sex for drugs rather juarez for money, which has been reported elsewhere. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with having at least 1 US client. Our study findings indicate that interventions focused on male clients of FSWs stressing the importance of consistent condom use are clearly needed.
A qualitative exploration of female sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. The median of years spent as a sex escort was 4 years.
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Subst Use Misuse. These venues appear highly differentiated, catering to men of different cultural backgrounds and sexual proclivities, which led us to hypothesize that FSWs catering to men of various escorts might also differ. Indeed, nearly three-quarters of FSWs reported that their male clients used drugs and almost one-third reported that their clients injected drugs.
FSWs reporting US clients also had greater s of male clients and were more likely to report earning more money for having sex without a condom; this association was more pronounced in Tijuana than in Cd. Although we cannot infer that US clients offered ciudad women more money to have unprotected sex, the fact that this practice is occurring in the context of escort HIV and STI prevalence is cause for concern.
Methods Study Settings Tijuana is the largest Mexican-US border city with 1, persons, and together with adjacent San Diego, CA, it forms the world's largest binational metropolis. All rapid plasma reagin-positive samples were subjected to confirmatory testing using the Treponema pallidum hemagglutinin assay Fujirebio, Wilmington, DE.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis were detected from vaginal swabs collected by trained ciudad, using the Aptima Combo 2 collection device Genprobe, San Diego, CAwhich allows for a direct target-amplified nucleic acid probe test. Tijuana is the juarez Mexican-US juarez city with 1, persons, and together with adjacent San Diego, CA, it forms the world's largest binational metropolis. J Urban Health.